Salamanca is a locality, municipality and Spanish city, capital of the homonymous province, located in the autonomous community of Castile and Leon. It is located in the region of Campo de Salamanca, in the North plateau, in the northwest quadrant of the Iberian peninsula. Spain.
The origins of the city go back some 2700 years, during the first Iron Age, when the first settlers of the city settled in the hill of San Vicente, to the bank of the Tormes. Since then, the metropolis has witnessed the passage of various villages: Vacceos, Vega, Romans, Visigoths and Muslims. Raymond of Burgundy, son-in-law of King Alfonso VI of Leon, was in charge of repopulating the city during the Middle Ages and settling the foundations of present-day Salamanca.
The town possesses the titles of "Very noble", "Very loyal" -who have been held since ancient times, "Charitable and hospitable" -distinction granted by King Alfonso XIII-, "Very cultured", "Docta" and "Sabia" Awarded by the Junta de Castilla y León in 1985, 1997 and 2007 respectively. In 1988, the old city was declared a World Heritage Site by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
In Salamanca there are important scientific institutions and research centers, such as the Cancer Research Center, the Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla y León (INCyL), the Center for Research and Technological Development of Water (CIDTA) and the Center for Pulsed Lasers Ultra-short Ultracontinent (CLPU).
The University of Salamanca is the oldest institution of higher education in Christian Spain, following the General Study of Palencia, which does not exist today. Alfonso IX of Leon grants the degree of General Study in 1218 to the cathedral schools of Salamanca emulating his nephew Alfonso VIII of Castile, who had done it with Palencia in 1208. The date of 1218 is officially considered as the birth of the «Studii salmantini '. After the definitive union of the two kingdoms under the scepter of Fernando III, the importance of the Salmantino study languishes that of Palencia, which will eventually disappear. In 1254 Alfonso X the Wise granted to Salamanca the title of University, ratified by the Pope in 1255, what makes it the first European in bearing this title.
Salamanca is the main tourist enclave of Castilla y León, being the city that receives more visitors to the year. In the city there are 32 hotels, 66 inns or inns, 21 fondas, 229 restaurants, 77 cafes and 1202 cafes or bars.73 Salamanca is also considered to be the great world reference in the teaching of Spanish, 39 known as " Language tourism, "since it accounts for 78% of the existing supply in Castilla y León and 16% in Spain.77 78 Viajes Halcón, one of the main tourist groups in the country and one of the largest companies in the Community, has Headquarters in the city.
Salamanca is home to the oldest university in Spain, the University of Salamanca, founded in 1218 by Alfonso IX of León, and was the first university in Europe to hold the title of university by royal cedula of Alfonso X el Sabio dated Of November 9, 1252 and by the licentia ubique docendi of Pope Alexander IV of 1255. During the time in which it was one of the most prestigious universities of the West the phrase "Quod natura non dat, Salmantica non præstat" became popular, 'What nature does not give, Salamanca is not good'.