The old town of Cáceres was declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco in 1986, as it is one of the most complete urban sets of the Middle Ages and Renaissance in the world. The Cathedral of Santa María, the Palace of Veletas (Provincial Museum of Cáceres), the Palaces of the Golfines (Up and Down), the House of the Sun, the Bujaco Tower or the Arc de la Estrella are some of its monuments More beautiful and admirable.
The Almohads made an expedition in 1174 in which they managed to regain control of Cáceres. Except for an attempt to siege in 1183, the Leoneses did not return to approach the Muslim locality until Century XIII. After the battle of the Navas of Tolosa in 1212, the conquest of Alcántara occurred in 1213, after which the Christians besieged Cáceres in 1218, 1222, 1223 and 1225, producing the definitive Reconquista the 23 of April of 1229. Although the conquest Was led by Alfonso IX of Leon, his death in 1230 resulted in Caceres becoming part of the Crown of Castile.
At the beginning of the 21st century, Cáceres was a great city with a multitude of services and cultural offerings. This prompted the City Council in 2003 to present the candidacy of Cáceres to the European City of Culture in 2016.51 For the candidacy, the city assisted itself with projects such as Intramuros to Europe and based its candidacy on the links with America and the 500 years of the accession to the throne of Carlos I of Spain, who retired in the last years of his life to the Monastery of Yuste, in the province of Cáceres.
It was the Muslims from North Africa who took advantage of the strategic place on which the original Roman colony was based as a military base to confront the Christian kingdoms of the north during the first centuries of the Reconquest. Thus, in the year 1147 Abd al-Mumin refounded the city on the Hispanic-Roman and Visigothic remains. From the Arab derives the present name of Vía de la Plata, denomination of the Roman road that united Astorga with Mérida, of Arab Balata, causeway, from where derived - by corruption - the word "silver".
The privileges of the reconquered village were granted by Alfonso IX and they configured to Cáceres like a town of realengo directly dependent of the Leon crown and without more local government than a own council. Through this jurisdiction, the Crown reserved a considerable portion of land between those of the Order of Santiago and those of the Order of Alcantara. The prohibition of seigniorial properties collected in this jurisdiction prevented the formation of a strong nobility, being the town directed by a mesocracy of agricultural knights.
In the fifteenth century, the city suffered the internal disputes of the nobility. The Catholic Kings dictated various ordinances and provisions to try to pacify local nobles; The most outstanding was that dictated by Isabel I in 1477, during his stay in the town on the occasion of the War of Castilian Succession, since in said ordinance it was established that the twelve councilors of the council would be perpetual.
The Christian Reconquest of Caceres occurred in 1229 and was the result of a long process that took place from the second half of the 12th century to the beginning of the 13th century. During this period, begun in 1142 with the conquest of Coria, the Tagus River marked an unstable border between Christians to the north and Muslims to the south. The kingdom of Castile partially ignored the possibilities of conquering this zone and the attempts of incorporation of Cáceres came from the kingdom of Portugal and the kingdom of Leon, who wanted to widen its width in its southern expansion. The Portuguese Geraldo Sempavor conquered Caceres in the middle of the 12th century in a campaign begun in 1165 that reached the center of present Extremadura, but an alliance between Fernando II of Leon and the Almohads gave the Leonidas control of the town in 1170.