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Benito Mussolini – the story of the fiery socialist who invented fascism
With this post I continue this series
In one of his last interviews the dog is extremely frank: “My star has fallen. I work, I’m trying, but I know it’s just a farce … I’m waiting for the end of the tragedy, but I’m no longer one of the actors and the last viewer. “A small guy with extremely explosive behavior pronouncing speech from the royal palace’s balcony. A carcass hanging upside down on Milan’s square, amidst the delighted crowd around him.These are the two brightest images left in the twentieth century cinema by this man who has been at the helm of Italy for more than 20 years.In the 20s and 30s of the twentieth century, Benito Mussolini was admired by both American and European politicians. His work as the head of the Italian government was judged to be a role model.Later, those who take off their hat before Mussolini are very quick to forget about these moments, and the European media provide him with the role of Hitler’s “hypocrisy.”The definition is not far from the truth – in recent years Benito Mussolini has ceased to be an independent figure, turning into a pale shadow of the Führer.Knowing what is happening later, it is hard to believe that in 1911 he furiously condemns the unfair Italian-Libyan war. For his anti-war sentiment, Mussolini has been jailed for several months.Mussolini’s life is overwhelming during the First World War. The leadership of the Socialist Party of Italy defends the thesis of neutrality, and the editor-in-chief of her publication suddenly publishes an introductory article in which she is openly declared to be involved in the war on the side of the Entente.His position, Mussolini, explains that, through the war, he sees the way Italy can regain its historic territories, which at that time are under the authority of Austro-Hungary. The nationalist in Mussolini prevails over the socialist. He was fired from the editorial office in the newspaper and was finally short with the Socialists. After joining the Italian war, Mussolini received a call and went to the front, where he also appeared as a fearless soldier.The former furious socialist announces the death of socialism as a doctrine, stating that Italy can only be revived on the basis of traditional values and with strong leadership. Mussolini’s main enemies are his recent associates – the Communists, the Socialists, the Anarchists, and all other left-wing parties.
In his political career Mussolini uses both legal and absolutely illegal methods. In the 1921 election, his party took 35 seats. At the same time, Mussolini’s associates began to form armed troops from party supporters, mostly war veterans. Because of the color of their uniforms they start calling them “black shirts”. Symbol of the Party and its Battalion Units become Fascis – the ancient-style attribute of power, which is a bundle of sticks tied together with the battle ax between them. Fascias also bear the root of the Italian word for alliance – “fascio”. Namely “Combat Alliance” is originally called the Mussolini Party (Fashi italiani di combatimento). From the fascism comes the word that associates the ideology of the Mussolini party – fascism. The party was officially renamed the National Fascist Party on November 7, 1921.His bright appearance in the eyes of the West is marred by his pursuit of territorial gains. The establishment of control over Libya, the capture of Ethiopia, the creation of a puppet regime in Albania – all this is met by a knife from the United States, the United Kingdom and France. But fateful to Mussolini was the rapprochement with Adolf Hitler, who was good at power in Germany.At the beginning Mussolini is extremely cautious about Hitler. It opposes, in all possible ways, the annexation of Austria from Germany, as it maintains friendly relations with the Austrian authorities.The real convergence of the two regimes began during the civil war in Spain, where Germany and Italy together supported General Franco in his struggle with the Republicans. In 1937 Mussolini joined the Anti-Communist Pact of Germany and Japan. This spoils the relations between Italy and the USSR, which have so far developed quite well.In alliance with Hitler, Mussolini becomes the “little partner,” whose fate depends entirely on the fate of the great “brother”. The Italian army appears to be unwilling to confront the Allies’ troops alone. Virtually all of her operations are connected, either way, with the German authorities. Italy entered the war with the USSR in 1942. The sending of troops to the Eastern Front became a catastrophe – Italian troops suffered the worst blow in the Stalingrad battles, after which the German 6th Army of Field Marshal Pauz was in the middle.In September 1943, German divers, under the command of Otto Scorceni, on Hitler’s orders, abducted Mussolini. The Duchess still needs the Führer to continue the fight. In northern Italy, the areas that are still under the control of the German troops, the so-called ” An Italian social republic, and Mussolini was named her head.However, the very person at this time spends more time writing his memoirs and fulfilling his leadership functions quite formally. Mussolini realizes that Italy’s all-powerful leader has become a political puppet.At the end of April 1945, with a small group of his other faithful associates and his mistress Clara Petacchi, Benito Mussolini was trying to hide in Switzerland. On the night of April 27, the dog and his companions, accompanied by a squad of 200 German soldiers also trying to transfer to Switzerland, are on the way. Their column was stopped by Italian guerrillas, and although Mussolini was disguised as a German officer, it was recognized. The Germans, who just want to be transferred to Switzerland without much thought, give the guerrillas the word.On April 28, 1945, Benito Mussolini and Clara Petacchi were shot at the outskirts of the village of Metagra. Their bodies, as well as the bodies of six other high-ranking Italian fascists, were taken to Milan, where they were hanged upside down at a gas station near Piazza Loreto Square. The choice of the place was not accidental – in August 1944, there were 15 guerrillas executed there, so defamation of the corpse of the dog is perceived as a kind of revenge. Then Mussolini’s body was thrown into a ditch, where it was left for a few days. On May 1, 1945, the man and his mistress were buried in a sepulchral tomb