In the past Zero-valent iron has been used to remediate contaminated soil and groundwater aquifer sites. At present, this metal is being used both in micro and macro-scale for the purposes of remediation of contaminated sites. Research indicates that an extensive range of chlorinated hydrocarbons may be dechlorinated using various nanoscale iron particles. Therefore, zero-valent iron serves as the bulk reducing agent. It works best under anaerobic conditions, especially in the case of beta-elimination reactions. It is more effective at degrading some contaminants because of a higher reactivity due to bigger surface area.
Notwithstanding the potential for the use of manufactured nanoparticles, there are still specific concerns that must be addressed in regard to the efficacy and application of zero valent iron powder. These issues include the kinetics, the mobility of nanoparticles under subsurface conditions, and products of contaminant degradation. Natural aquifer systems are complex ecosystems with a plethora of microbial communities. These microbial communities are subject to a wide variety of changes as the environment of the aquifer is altered. In situ degradation of contaminants, when feasible, is often preferred over other approaches because it has the potential to be more cost-effective.
Here are some benefits of using zero valent iron powder:
Safe to The Environment
Does not contain harmful chemicals and are safer to handle when compared to chemical oxidants. Currently, there is no know no risk to people or the environment from this product. However, If dust is generated during the use of handling of these materials, extra precaution for eye protection, skin and respiration are recommended.
With the longevity of up to 15 years, zero valent iron powder provides a long-term treatment solution. Compared to conventionally-used macroscopic iron the using of powder has the advantages given mainly by their generally small dimensions and particular physical and chemical properties which boost the permanence of the treatment.
Climate and agricultural strain on water resources have led to an amplified global call for water while at the same time the part of potential water resources which are badly affected by organic chemicals, salinization, metals, and nitrates has increased. ZVI is recycled iron cuttings from production facilities which may be otherwise disposed at a landfill. It is theoretically a greener and more sustainable alternative. For environmental rehabilitation. This iron powder shows enhanced remediation kinetics.
Puts an end to contaminants with no toxic by-products
ZVI is an abiotic reaction which destroys the contaminate with no intermediation by-products such as dichloroethane and vinyl chloride. It has been used and continues to be used in the groundwater remediation trade for several decades. The ZVI portion first makes available potent reducing conditions which absolutely extinguish many contaminants as they become rickety in these reductive conditions. Regular attenuation progressions in groundwater are enriched through the discharge of organic carbon, major, minor, and micro-nutrients. As these mixtures rove over the treatment area, they make available perfect conditions for the development of indigenous microorganisms. For that reason, the rate of carbon release is controlled, the extent of biological establishment can also be achieved and preserved.
Cooperation with Bioremediation Treatments
Without providing potential bio-toxic chemicals ZVI conditions the aquifer for ongoing bioremediation. Further, it forms an anoxic and extremely reducing environment, providing ultimate conditions for progressive improved anaerobic biodegradation to destroy chlorinated contaminants. Biological degradation consists of the obliteration of contaminants by anaerobic bacteria that are buttressed by the molecular hydrogen that is made by the reaction of ZVI with water. Remediation method combines zero-valent iron with organic hydrogen donor, and contaminant-degrading microbes in order to degrade contaminants in soil and groundwater. Bioremediation can be used to treat contaminants such as chlorinated pesticides, chlorinated solvents, and haloalkanes.
At the moment, to implement ZVI technology cost viability is imperative. Cost is pegged on the scale of application of this powder at a site. Other factors that influence the cost are the size of the treatment zone and the amount of iron needed to achieve reductive dechlorination. Accordingly, ZVI remediation provides the most value in consideration of reactivity and longevity in comparison to chemical oxidants.