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Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) I

Melancholy was then, as now, indicating a state of mind. The first is about her written by Hippocrates and shaped her Galen, the most important physician of antiquity, in the framework of the four bile (fluid) which is secreted in human body and affect his temperament and intellect, and as such has been accepted in the Renaissance, unlike Middle Ages when the influence of bile interpreted through a moral prism. Therefore we phlegmatic, sanguine, choleric and melancholic, depending on the bile that is dominant in a person. These body fluids have been under the influence of certain planets and symbolically associated with the 4 elements, 4 seasons, four winds (ie. The globe), 4 times of the day and 4 stages of life. Phlegm, cold and damp under the influence of the moon, has been associated with the winter and the north wind austere, with night and deep age so they are apathetic relaxed and calm. When Sanguine has the most influence blood, moist and warm, which is associated with air, springtime, wind zephyrs morning and youth. Under the influence of Jupiter, these people are happy, friendly and tend to the party, which makes it the most desirable sanguine temperament. Kolerici people are under the influence of Mars, giving them a heady, fiery temper and for which the most light yellow bile. Hot and dry, she corresponded with fire, year, southern Eurus, midday and man’s mature age. Black bile causing melancholic temperament. Dry and cold, is brought into contact with the ground, the wind Boreas, autumn, twilight and late life age. How are mostly melancholic considered unfortunate, strange or, at least, thoughtful, taciturn, the temperament of the most feared, especially as increased secretion of bile and could lead to madness. This is attributed to the negative influence of Saturn and, according to one petnaestovekovna illustration Four Temperaments “Saturn and autumn are to blame for this.” Saturijanski term has become almost synonymous with melancholy and every person, animal, plant or mineral which he rules the melancholic, among other dog and a bat we see in Direrovoj melancholy I. As the planet’s highest and oldest of the Olympian gods, Saturn (which is Greek mythology, Cronus) was able to give power and wealth, but as a dry and cool the planet, to overthrow the brutal father, castrated and imprisoned in the depths of the earth, and is associated with aging, grief and death and is considered the worst astrological influence. Even those endowed with wealth would be at the expense of goodness and generosity, while the wise pay for happiness. Yet, Florentine Neoplatonists also found a positive opinion on Saturn and melancholy in some ancient thinkers so they (imagine!) and accepted. How is above Jupiter, Saturn is considered superior to the planet and is symbolized Um, while the previous symbol of the Soul – far-sighted contemplation as opposed to practical action. Thus interpreted, the dominance of Saturn were accepted willingly by those whose minds tend to think and research uzvišenijih things. Marsilio Ficino as a leading figure neoplatinističkog movement was the main proponent of the idea that, if a man knows how to use it the right way, saturijanski impact it can lead to the highest spheres. Often anxious, he even used the astrological amulets for generating power as an antidote to Jupiter and Saturn’s influence, which is not a rarity at that time. This explains some graphics elements – a square with numbers is mensula IOVIS, magic square with 16 boxes, which “removes all the worry and fear,” talisman is often used in the Renaissance. The same purpose has a wreath on the head of melancholy. It is composed of 2 plants, with only one common characteristic – to soothe negative effects in excessive secretion of bile.

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