What is Male Infertility? What are its Causes and Treatment?

Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples globally. Both men and women are affected by infertility and about one out of three cases, male infertility is the reason for women to not being able to get pregnant. There are a number of medical conditions and other factors which contribute to infertility in men.

What is male infertility?

Male infertility means when a man is not able to get fertile women to conceive a child even after trying through regular sexual intercourse for more than a year. For a woman to conceive a child male sperm has to fertilize ovum (egg) inside of the fallopian tube. This egg then travels down the fallopian tubes to the uterus. The exceptions to this sequence are the processes of artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization (IVF). This process of fertilization does not occur if a male sperm has abnormalities. Sperm abnormalities and other causes of infertility can be assessed by specialized IVF fertility clinics in Melbourne.

What are the causes of male infertility?

The cause of infertility is often due to sperm production, sperm count sperm delivery or sperm motility.

  • Varicocele: It is a swelling of veins that drain the testicles. This condition affects the quality of sperm may also cause obstruction to the delivery of the sperm. With the proper treatment of varicocele can improve sperm number and quality.
  • Infections: At times infections can cause abnormalities in sperm quality or delivery of the sperms. Some infections can cause permanent testicular damage.
  • Ejaculation problems: certain injuries or disease causes an inability to ejaculate semen in men, even though normal sperms are produced.
  • Hormonal imbalance: Low testosterone or other hormonal imbalances can be one of the possible causes of infertility in men. Some disorders of testicles, abnormalities related to pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands can also result in infertility.
  • Genetic conditions: A hereditary disorder such as Klinefelter’s syndrome, which causes abnormal development of the reproductive organs in males, contributes to male infertility.
  • Exposure to radiation: high exposure to radiation results in a reduction in sperm production.
  • Lifestyle: Excess and frequent alcohol consumption reduces testosterone levels, decreases sperm production. In addition to that men who smoke may have lower sperm count. Use of certain steroids, drugs also affects the quality and production of sperms.
  • Depression, mental illness, excessive stress levels interfere with the production of hormones in the body causing imbalance, leads to problems in fertility.

How male infertility is assessed?

  • Medical examinations: The general medical examination that includes a complete medical history of any chronic illness, inherited conditions, injuries. A doctor might ask about lifestyle, habits, etc.
  • Semen analysis: Semen analysis is done to detect any infections, detect sperm abnormalities such as sperm mobility and morphology. Most cases this test is done over a period of time to ensure accurate results.
  • Hormone level test: Blood tests to check levels and production of hormones, which contribute to male fertility.
  • Specialized tests: Specialized sperm function tests to check how sperm survives after ejaculation.

What are the treatments of infertility?

Thanks to advanced medical developments some causes of infertility can be treated. Thus have various procedures and treatments available for the couple to get pregnant and have their own child.

Depending upon the conditions and physicians’ consult proper treatments are suggested to the couples.

Some of the treatments of infertility are:

  • Varicoceles can be corrected with surgery to remove swelling on the veins.
  • In case infertility is caused by hormonal problems doctors can recommend medications or hormone replacement procedures.
  • Assisted reproductive technology helps in retrieving sperms from males through surgical procedures or from donor individuals and used to perform in vitro fertilization (IVF).
  • Doctors may also recommend a lifestyle change to reduce stress levels or restrict alcohol consumption as well as smoking.

Infertility problems and inability to have own child affect couples mental health as well as their immediate families. But thanks to advanced medical treatments available such couples can have a child through the procedures of IVF in specialized fertility clinics in Melbourne. Today various IVF options are available, so whoever is suffering from infertility problems can seek help from IVF specialists in Melbourne and can start their journey to have their own child.


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Written by Eric Foley

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