Dunning and Kruger did a follow-up study at a gun range. They asked hobbyists questions about gun safety and then, to estimate how well they performed on the quiz.
Those who answered the fewest questions correctly also overestimated their mastery of firearm knowledge.
Over the years, D & K found that in all walks of human existence the least competent rated themselves the highest while those at the top 25% , in whatever field, routinely underestimated their own competence.
The key feature is that when we have a poor or nonexistent grasp of a topic, we literally know too little of it to understand how little we know.
Those who possess the knowledge or skills have a much better idea of where they sit.
Most people think that if a task is clear and simple to them, it must be so for everyone else as well.
The stupidest partake in the “illusion of confidence” in themselves, they who know nothing think they know everything.
The Brightest do not think they know everything and believe others are as competent as they are.