In rare cases, usually when there is an ‘1899’ management style, the problems are created at the top. They are created because the method or pattern of management is so outdated that it is unworkable.
In ancient days, there was a Board and the Board appointed Managers. These Managers had to clear all actions with the Board.
The employees might not have known the truth the day they came to work, but learn the powerlessness of the manager over time.
Learning the Manager has no power to fire them encourages the worst behaviour.
It is virtually carte blanche to unwork, sleep, waste time. As long as they punched in on time and punched out on time, they couldn’t be fired. Only when an employee is caught stealing could the Manager step in, however, this had to be so obvious it was beyond question.
The 1899 Management structure ensures the business runs badly. Depending on how much money is available to be wasted, the business can last a few years before tanking.