During the next two centuries America has developed the skill of getting clandestine operatives into a target country.
Sometimes they are ‘anthropologists’ other times ‘university professors’ or some sort of ‘expert’ be it on mining, drainage, or road maintenance.
The operatives observe, report, indicating the various ‘soft spots’ and enlisting local dissent.
As many nations have sufficient populations who will betray their country it is easy to utilise them to create public demonstrations, riots, etc. as well as recruiting suppliers to cause ‘shortages’ which will activate the population.
A beef shortage in Chile was sufficient to get people demonstrating against Salvadore Allende, and making his execution manageable.
Shortages of basic products; rice, tinned milk, soap powder, was sufficient to get the population against Michael Manley in Jamaica and able to replace him with a U.S. poodle.
The ‘Arab Spring’ is one of the most recent examples of how locals can be manipulated to overthrow their governments, leaving America with deniability