As time passed the 1899 paradigm proven ineffective, unproductive, and most companies replaced it with a more streamlined model.
Most companies hired a day to day Manager, supported by as few aides and assistants as practicable, and imbue him or her with all the authority to perform at optimum.
The Manager would have the ability to fire, hire, transfer, grant reasonable off days.
Basically, even when there was a Board or some sort of overseers, the Manager need merely write a report as to why s/he fired this worker and it would be rubber stamped.
By giving the Managers power, by making them responsible, they worked better with more focus. The Managers felt this was ‘their’ business.
This corrected almost all the problems the businesses which had used the 1899 model experienced, from low productivity to time wasting, unworking, and a general ‘don’t care’ attitude.
However, a number of businesses retain the 1899 pattern.