The creation of 3d models today is an essential process not only in industry but also in many other fields of human activity such as medicine, architecture, construction, design, education, cinematography, etc.
The production of 3d models allows evaluating the technical and physical features of the modeling object, even before the creation of its real sample. Thanks to the product visualization 3d, you can analyze the dimensions of the product, its equipment, and material.
The creation of 3D models is an integral part of the technical documentation and high-quality product presentation.
3D Modeling: Concept and Scope
3D modeling is a separate type of computer graphics, which includes all the necessary tools and techniques used to build a 3D model of the object (in three-dimensional space).
Techniques for 3d modeling of a graphics object include: calculating the dimensions and parameters of the object, constructing the 3D shape of the object (without detailing), drawing the “skeleton,” as well as the processes of building, cutting, extruding the details of the object.
Tools 3D modeling is professional software designed to work with 3D graphics. These include, first of all, the programs 3DMAX, ProEngineering, SolidWork, as well as other software products for the volume visualization of objects.
Sphere of usage of 3d modeling:
- Advertising and marketing. 3D model of the object is indispensable when preparing a presentation of a new product, as well as for creating a 3D visualization of the object used in advertising products when developing the design of packaging, the design of exhibition stands and POS materials.
- Industry. Pre-production modeling of products allows to detect and eliminate product shortcomings before the direct start of production, which significantly reduces the financial costs of the manufacturer.
- Computer games and cinematography. 3D modeling allows you to create three-dimensional landscapes, animated characters, 3d-hero models, an environment for computer games and video games. In cinematography 3D technologies are used as a tool for creating scenes and individual 3D objects.
- Architecture and design. 3D models of buildings and structures are an integral part of the modern design process, from which it is possible to make a prototype of an object, if necessary with a maximum degree of detail. 3D modeling in interior design allows the customer to see how the finished design project of the room or office will look, even before the repair work.
- Animation. Create animated characters that can move, and create an product animation video based on the design of animation scenes.
Stages of 3D model creation
Creation of 3d models is carried out in several stages:
- Creating a form and building the geometry of an object model is the process of modeling the geometric shape of an object without taking into account its physical characteristics. At this stage, we use 3D modeling techniques such as extrusion, rotation, polygonal modeling, or modifiers.
- Texturing. The degree of realism of the model will depend directly on the selected materials when applying textures to the object. For more information on texturing, see “Mapping and Texturing.”
- Adjust lighting and select the viewpoint. A relatively complex stage of 3D model development, from how accurately and correctly the light is exposed, the brightness, depth of shadows, and sharpness depends directly on the degree of realism of the model.
- Rendering and 3D visualization is the final stage of 3D model construction, which is designed to detail the display settings of the 3D model, as well as to add graphics special effects, for example, fog, glare, radiance, etc. At this stage, three-dimensional visualization settings are also detailed and refined.
- Post-processing of the received images of the 3d model, adding aesthetic visual effects, attracting attention and causing consumer interest.
Requirements for 3D models
Before starting to create a prototype from the obtained three-dimensional model, it is necessary to analyze the model and its adaptation:
- Analyze 3D geometry – test it for the presence of open spaces in a polygonal mesh, the presence of incorrect displacements of polygons, as well as defects in geometry.
- Verification of all parameters, sizes, and tolerances for compliance with their technical equipment data, which will be used to create a prototype, as well as an agreement with materials for printing.
- Adapt the 3d model to the equipment used.
Besides, it is necessary that the 3D model meet the following requirements:
- Dimensions, chamfers, wall thickness, should correspond to such parameters: minimum – not less than 0,5 mm, optimal – 1 mm and more;
- the tolerances of the 3d model must be changed following the requirements of the equipment, and also take into account the possible shrinkage of the material;
- set the print step depending on the material used: ABS plastic – 0,125-0,5 mm, PLA-plastic – 0,125-0,5 mm.